Multiple risk factors
This report examines multiple risk factors among adults in England using data from 2016 and 2017. Information on smoking, alcohol, body mass index, physical activity, and fruit and vegetable consumption was combined to assign a multiple risk score. Information on raised biomarkers (elevated levels of blood pressure, total cholesterol, and glycated haemoglobin) was separately combined. The report provides information on the most common combinations of risk factors and raised biomarkers, as well as the prevalence of multiple risks by population subgroups.
- In total, 13% of adults had no risk factors, and a further 36% had only one. Around half of adults had two or more risk factors, including 32% who had two and 19% who had three or more. A very small proportion (less than 1%) had all five risks.
- The prevalence of multiple risk factors was higher in men than in women. 54% of men and 47% of women had two or more risk factors; 21% of men and 17% of women had three or more.
- The prevalence of multiple risk factors was higher for men than for women from the age of 25 up to the age of 74.
- Among men with two risk factors, drinking over the recommended weekly limit with low fruit and vegetable consumption was the most prevalent combination (10%). Among women, the most common combination was low fruit and vegetable consumption with obesity (10%).
- 12% of adults had two raised biomarkers and 1% had all three. The prevalence of multiple raised biomarkers was higher for men than for women between the ages 25 and 44. It was higher for women than for men among those aged 65 and over.
Download the tables for this report here.